Researching VR for education

This post provides a snapshot of some of the ways the VR School Study researches the use of VR in schools, with the framework also applicable to other formal educational contexts. VR School is an ongoing multi-site study that employs a mixed-methodology (qualitative and quantitative) approach to research. The study is premised on a multi-perspectival conceptual of education with and in VR. The diagram below outlines some of the key areas that are explored in the research.

Each of these areas prompts a range of questions about virtual reality for education. The table below highlights some of these questions with associated methods for collecting data that might shed light on them.

AREARESEARCHQUESTIONSMETHOD
PedagogyHow can teachers leverage the signature pedagogies of their subject areas/disciplines to ensure deeper learning through VR for their students?
How can teachers leverage the learning affordances of VR for deeper learning?
What are the pedagogical principles or assumptions the are evident in VR applications?
Classroom observation
Teacher reflection
Surveys
CurriculumHow can VR be woven into a unit of work which includes the normal range of conventional learning activities in a curriculum-aligned way?
Can curriculum objectives be adapted to take advantage of the learning affordances of VR?
Classroom observation
Teacher written and verbal reflection
Document (curriculum) analysis
AssessmentHow can VR be used to develop novel, engaging and authentic types of formative and summative assessment?
How can student peer and self-assessment be built into VR projects?
How can VR be used to develop novel, engaging and authentic types of formative and summative assessment?
What are strengths and limitations of conventional assessment types in understanding learning?
Teacher and student written and verbal reflection
Document (curriculum) analysis
Achievement analysis
Student work sample analysis
Student learningHow can students use VR to demonstrate content mastery, collaboration and communication skills, new conceptual understandings, problem-solving skills, metacognition and an academic mindset?
What is the student experience of learning through and in VR?
How can students move beyond the novel effect of new technology to develop deeper learning?
Surveys
Student work sample analysis
Student and teacher written and verbal reflection
Achievement analysis
Student talk and behavioural analysis
Observation
Teacher professional learningWhat is the teacher experience of learning to use an emerging technology in the classroom?
What types of formal professional learning, expert and peer support do teachers require?
How do teachers learn from each other and students during VR projects?
Teacher written and verbal reflection
Observation
Survey
Ethics and safetyWhat are the ethical, legal, safety and child development issues related to using VR in classrooms?Document analysis
Observation and testing
Surveys and experiments (cross-sectional and longitudinal)
Organisational arrangements and cultureWhat are the technical, practical and organisational enablers and barriers to embedding VR in classrooms in a curriculum-aligned way?
What conditions are required for pedagogical risk taking using an emerging technology?
How does the culture of the school support or impede innovation?
Teacher and student written and verbal reflection
Observation
Survey
Document analysis

While these are only some of the questions and approaches to data collection that the VR School study is exploring across primary and secondary schools and in different subject areas, it is worth noting that there is a commitment to participatory research: That is research with teachers and students, not on them. Elevating the knowledges of teachers and students will be key to understanding where VR fits best in education and in scaling up immersive learning in schools.

Cover image from Pexel.

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